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The Civil Code of the Russian Federation

(with the Additions and Amendments of February 20, August 12, 1996,
October 24, 1997, July 8, December 17, 1999, April 16, May 15,
November 26, 2001, March 21, November 14, 26, 2002,
January 10, March 26, November 11, December 23, 2003)

Part I
Section II
Chapter 13
The General Provisions

Chapter 13. The General Provisions

Article 209. The Content of the Right of Ownership


1. The owner shall be entitled to the rights of the possession, the use and the disposal of his property.
2. The owner shall have the right at his own discretion to perform with respect to the property in his ownership any actions, not contradicting the law and the other legal acts, and not violating the rights and the law-protected interests of the other persons, including the alienation of his property into the ownership of the other persons, the transfer to them, while himself remaining the owner of the property, of the rights of its possession, use and disposal, the putting of his property in pledge and its burdening in other ways, as well as the disposal thereof in a different manner.
3. The possession, the use and the disposal of the land and of the other natural resources so far as their circulation is admitted by the law (Article 129), shall be freely effected by their owner, unless this inflicts damage to the natural environment or violates the rights and the legal interests of the other persons.
4. The owner may pass his property over into the confidential management, or into the trusteeship (to a confidential manager, or to the trustee). The transfer of the property into the confidential management shall not entail the transfer of the rights of ownership to the confidential manager, who shall be obliged to perform the management of the property in the interest of the owner or of the third person the owner has named.

Article 210. The Burden of Maintaining the Property


The owner shall bear the burden of maintaining the property in his ownership, unless otherwise stipulated by the law or by the contract.

Article 211. The Risk of an Accidental Destruction of the Property


The risk of an accidental destruction of the property or of an accidental damage inflicted on it shall be borne by its owner, unless otherwise stipulated by the law or by the contract.

Article 212. The Subjects of the Right of Ownership


1. In the Russian Federation shall be recognized the private, the state, the municipal and the other forms of ownership.
2. The property may be in the ownership of the citizens and of the legal entities, and also of the Russian Federation, of the subjects of the Russian Federation and of the municipal entities.
3. The specifics of the acquisition and of the cessation of the right of ownership to the property, of the possession, the use and the disposal thereof may be established only by the law, depending on whether the given property is in the ownership of the citizen or of the legal entity, in the ownership of the Russian Federation, of the subject of the Russian Federation or of the municipal entity. The law shall stipulate the kinds of the property, which may be only in the state or in the municipal ownership.
4. The rights of all the owners shall be equally protected.

Article 213. The Right of Ownership of the Citizens and of the Legal Entities


1. In the ownership of the citizens and of the legal entities may be any property, with the exception of the individual kinds of the property, which, in conformity with the law, may not be owned by the citizens or by the legal entities.
2. The amount and the cost of the property in the ownership of the citizens and of the legal entities shall not be limited, with the exception of the cases, when such limitations have been established by the law for the purposes, stipulated by Item 2, Article 1 of the present Code.
3. The commercial and the non-profit organizations, with the exception of the state and of the municipal enterprises, and also of the institutions, financed by the owner, shall be the owners of the property, transferred to them by way of the investments (the contributions), made by their founders (participants, members), and also of the property, acquired by these legal entities on the other grounds.
4. The public and the religious organizations (the associations), the charity and the other kind of funds shall be the owners of the property they have acquired and shall have the right to use it only for achieving the goals, stipulated in their constituent documents. The founders (the participants, the members) of these organizations shall lose the right to the property, which they have transferred into the ownership of the corresponding organization. In case of the liquidation of such an organization, its property, left after the creditors' claims have been satisfied, shall be used for the purposes, pointed out in its constituent documents.

Article 214. The Right of the State Ownership


1. The state property in the Russian Federation shall be the property, owned by the right of ownership by the Russian Federation (the federal, or the federally owned property), and also the property, owned by the right of ownership by the subjects of the Russian Federation - by the Republics, the territories, the regions, the cities of federal importance, by the autonomous region and by the autonomous areas (the property of the subject of the Russian Federation).
2. The land and the other natural resources, which are not in the ownership of the citizens, the legal entities or the municipal entities, shall be the state property.
3. On behalf of the Russian Federation and of the subjects of the Russian Federation, the rights of the owner shall be exercised by the bodies and by the persons, indicated in Article 125 of the present Code.
4. The property, which is in the state ownership, shall be assigned to the state-run enterprises and institutions into the possession, the use and the disposal in conformity with the present Code (Articles 294 and 296). The means of the corresponding budget and the other state property, not assigned to the state enterprises and institutions, shall comprise the state treasury of the Russian Federation, the treasury of the Republic within the Russian Federation, of the territory, the region, the city of federal importance, of the autonomous region and of the autonomous area.
5. Referring the state property to the federal property and to the property of the subjects of the Russian Federation shall be effected in conformity with the procedure, laid down by the law.

Article 215. The Right of the Municipal Ownership


1. The property, belonging by the right of ownership to the urban and to the rural settlements, and to the other municipal entities, shall be the municipal property.
2. On behalf of the municipal entity, the rights of the owner shall be exercised by the local self-government bodies and by the persons, indicated in Article 125 of the present Code.
3. The property in the municipal ownership shall be assigned to the municipal enterprises and to the institutions into the possession, the use and the disposal in conformity with the present Code (Articles 294 and 296). The means of the local budget and the other municipal property, not assigned to the municipal enterprises and to the institutions, shall comprise the municipal treasury of the corresponding urban or rural settlement or of the other municipal entity.

Article 216. The Rights of Estate of the Persons, Who Are Not the Owners


1. The rights of estate shall be, alongside the right of ownership: - the right of the inherited life possession of the land plot (Article 265);
- the right of the permanent (perpetual) use of the land plot (Article 268);
- the servitudes (Articles 274 and 277);
- the right of the economic management of the property (Article 294) and the right of the operation management of the property (Article 296).
2. The rights of estate to the property may be possessed by the persons, who are not the owners of this property.
3. The transfer of the right of the ownership to the property to the other person shall not be a ground for the cessation of the other rights of estate to this property.
4. The rights of estate of the person, who is not the owner of the property, shall be protected from their violation by any person in the order, stipulated by Article 305 of the present Code.

Article 217. Privatization of the State and of the Municipal Property


The property in the state or in the municipal ownership may be transferred by its owner into the ownership of the citizens and of the legal entities in the order, stipulated by the laws on the privatization of the state and of the municipal property.
In the course of the privatization of the state and of the municipal property, the provisions, stipulated by the present Code, which regulate the order of the acquisition and of the cessation of the right of ownership, shall be applied, unless otherwise stipulated by the laws on the privatization.

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