The Civil Code of the Russian Federation

(with the Additions and Amendments of February 20, August 12, 1996,
October 24, 1997, July 8, December 17, 1999, April 16, May 15,
November 26, 2001, March 21, November 14, 26, 2002,
January 10, March 26, November 11, December 23, 2003)

Part II
Section IV
Chapter 50
Actions in the Interest of Other People Without Commission

Chapter 50. Actions in the Interest of Other People Without Commission

Article 980. Terms for Actions in the Interest of Other People


1. Actions without commission, other instruction or the interested person's consent promised in advance for the purpose of averting harm to his personality or property, executing his obligation or in other legitimate interests (actions in the interest of other people) shall ne performed due to the obvious benefit or profit and to the actual and probable intentions of the interested person and with care and diligence vision requisite in the circumstances of the case.
2. The rules, envisaged by this Chapter, shall not be applied to actions in the interest of other persons, committed by state and municipal bodies, for which such actions are one of the purposes of their activity.

Article 981. Notification of the Interested Person about Actions in His Interest


1. A person who acts in the interest of another person shall be obliged to inform the interested person about this at the first opportunity and wait during a reasonable period of time for his decision on the approval or disapproval of the undertaken actions, unless such waiting entails serious damage to the interested person.
2. It shall not be required to specially inform the interested individual about the actions in his interest, if such actions are undertaken in his presence.

Article 982. The Consequences of the Approval by the Interested Person of Actions in His Interests


If a person for the benefit of whom actions are taken without his commission adopts these actions, the rules for the contract of agency or a different contract that corresponds to the character of the undertaken actions shall be applied to the relations between the parties, even if this approval was oral.

Article 983. The Consequences of the Non-approval by the Interested Person of Actions in His Interest


1. Actions in the interest of other people committed after it has become known to the performer of these actions that they are not approved by the interested person shall not entail obligations for the latter either in respect of the performer of these actions or of third persons.
2. Actions undertaken to prevent danger for the life of the person who is imperiled shall also be allowed against the will of this person, while the discharge of the obligation of maintaining anybody shall be allowed against the will of the person charged with this obligation.

Article 984. Compensation for Losses for the Person Who Acted in the Interest of Other People


1. Requisite expenses and other real damage sustained by the person who acted in the interest of other people in accordance with the rules, provided for by this Chapter, shall be subject to compensation by the interested person, with the exception of the expenses incurred by the actions referred to in Item 1 of Article 983 of this Code. The right to compensation for necessary and other real damage shall also be retained in case where actions in the interest of other people have not brought about the expected result. However, in case of preventing damage to the property of another person the amount of compensation shall not exceed the value of property.
2. Expenses and other losses of the person who acted in the interest of other people, incurred by him in connection with the actions undertaken after the receipt of approval by the interested person (Article 982), shall be reimbursed according to the rules for a contract of the relevant type.

Article 985. Remuneration for Actions in the Interest of Other People


A person whose actions in the interest of other people have led to the result positive for the interested person shall have the right to receive remuneration, if such right is provided for by law, the agreement with the interested person or the business turnover customs.

Article 986. The Consequences of a Transaction in the Interest of Other People


The obligations under the transaction concluded in the interest of other people shall pass to the person in whose interest it has been made, subject to the approval by him of this transaction and if the other party does not object against such passage or has known or should have known during the conclusion of the transaction that it was concluded in the interest of other people.
With the passage of obligations under such transaction to the person in whose interest it was concluded, the rights under this transaction shall also be transferred to the latter person.

Article 987. Unjust Enrichment in Consequences of Actions in the Interest of Other People


If actions which are not directly aimed at the security of the interests of another person, including in the case where the person who has committed them mistakenly supposed that he acts in his own interest, have led to the unjust enrichment of another person, the rules, provided for by Chapter 60 of this Code shall be applied.

Article 988. The Compensation for the Harm Inflicted by Actions in the Interest of Other People


Relations involved in the compensation of the harm inflicted by actions in the interest of other people on the interested person or third persons, shall be regulated by the rules of Chapter 59 of this Code.

Article 989. The Report of the Person Who Acted in the Interest of Other People


The person who acted in the interest of other people shall be obliged to submit to the person in whose interest such actions have been committed his report with an indication of the obtained incomes and incurred expenses and other losses.

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