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The Civil Code of the Russian Federation

(with the Additions and Amendments of February 20, August 12, 1996,
October 24, 1997, July 8, December 17, 1999, April 16, May 15,
November 26, 2001, March 21, November 14, 26, 2002,
January 10, March 26, November 11, December 23, 2003)

Part II
Section IV
Chapter 59
Liabilities for Damage
_ 1.
General Provisions in the Redress of Injury
_ 2.
The Redress of the Injury Inflicted on the Life or Health of an Individual
_ 3.
The Redress of the Injury Inflicted by Defects in Goods, Works or Services
_ 4.
Compensation for the Moral Damage

Chapter 59. Liabilities for Damage

_ 1. General Provisions in the Redress of Injury


Article 1064. General Grounds for Liability for Damage


1. The injury inflicted on the personality or property of an individual, and also the damage done to the property of a legal entity shall be subject to full compensation by the person who inflicted the damage. The obligation to redress the injury may be imposed by the law on the person who is not the inflictor of injury.
The law or the contract may institute the obligation of the inflictor of injury to repay to the victims compensation over and above the compensation of damage.
2. A person who has caused harm shall be released from the redress of injury, if he proves that injury was caused no through his fault. The law may also provide for the redress of injury in the absence of the fault of the inflictor of injury.
3. Injury inflicted by lawful actions shall be subject to redress in cases, provided for by the law. Redress of injury may be rejected, if injury has been caused at the request or with the consent of the insured person and unless the actions of the inflictor of injury violate the moral principles of the society.

Article 1065. Prevention of the Infliction of Injury


1. The damage of the infliction of injury in future may be a ground for the action for the prohibition of the activity that creates such danger.
2. If the injury caused is the consequence of the operation of an enterprise, structure or of any other production activity which continues to inflict injuries or threatens with a new damage, the court of law shall have the right to bound the defendant to suspend or stop the relevant activity in addition to the redress of injury. The court may dismiss the action for the suspension or discontinuance of the relevant activity only in case, if its suspension or discontinuance contradicts public interests. The dismissal of the action for the suspension or discontinuance of such activity shall not deprive the insured party of the right to the redress of the injury inflicted by this activity.

Article 1066. The Infliction of Injury in the State of Justifiable Defence


Injury inflicted in the state of justifiable defence, unless the requirements of justifiable defence are exceeded, shall not be subject to redress.

Article 1067. The Infliction of Injury in the State of Absolute Necessity


Injury inflicted in the state of absolute necessity, that is for the removal of danger threatening the inflictor of injury himself or other persons, if this danger could not be eliminated under the given circumstances with other means, shall be redressed by the person who has caused this injury.
Taking into account the circumstances under which such injury was inflicted, the court of law may impose the obligation of its redress on a third person, in whose interest the inflictor of injury acted, or release this third person and the inflictor of injury from the redress of this injury in full or in part.

Article 1068. The Liability of a Legal Entity or an Individual for Injury Inflicted by the Employee


1. A legal entity or an individual shall redress the injury inflicted by the employee during the performance of labour (official) duties. In terms of the rules, provided for by this Chapter, individuals performing their work on the basis of a labour contract, and also individuals performing their work under a civil-law contract shall be recognized as employees, if in this case they acted or should have acted on the assignment of the relevant legal entity or individual and under their control over the safe conduct of works.
2. Economic partnerships and procedure cooperatives shall refresh the injury inflicted by their participants (members) during the performance by them of the business, production or any other activity of the partnership or cooperative.

Article 1069. Liability for the Injury Inflicted by State and Local Self-government Bodies, and Also by Their Officials


The injury inflicted on an individual or a legal entity as a result of unlawful actions (inaction) of state and local self-government bodies or of their officials, including as a result of the issuance of an act of a state or self-government body inconsistent with the law or any other legal act, shall be subject to redress. The injury shall be redressed at the expense of the state treasury of the Russian Federation, the respective subject of the Russian Federation or the respective municipal body, as the case may be.

Article 1070. Liability for the Injury Inflicted by the Illegal Actions of the Bodies of Inquest, Preliminary Investigation, the Procurator's Office and the Court of Law


1. The injury inflicted on an individual as a result of illegal conviction, illegal institution of proceedings on criminal charges, illegal application of remand in custody as a measure of suppression or of a written understanding not to leave one's place of residence, illegal imposition of an administrative penalty in the form of arrest or corrective labour shall be redressed in full at the expense of the state treasury of the Russian Federation and in cases, stipulated by law, at the expense of the state treasury of the respective subject of the Russian Federation or of the respective municipal body, regardless of the fault of the officials of bodies of inquest, preliminary investigation, procurator's offices or courts of law in the procedure established by law.
2. Injury inflicted on an individual or a legal entity as a result of the illegal activity of bodies of inquest, preliminary investigation, procurator's offices, which has not entailed the consequences, specified by Item 1 of this Article, shall be redressed on the grounds and in the procedure, provided for by Article 1069 of this Code. Injury inflicted during the administration of justice shall be redressed in cases, if the fault of a judge has been established by the court's judgement that has entered into legal force.

Article 1071. Bodies and Persons Acting on Behalf of the State Treasury in Case of Redress of Injury at Its Expense


I cases where in keeping with this Code or other laws in injury inflicted is subject to redress at the expense of state treasury of the Russian Federation, that of the subject of the Russian Federation or the municipal formation, the state treasury shall be represented by the relevant finance bodies, unless in accordance with Item 3 of Article 125 of this Code this duty is imposed on a different body, legal entity or an individual.

Article 1072. Redress of Injury by the Person Who Has Insured His Liability


A legal entity or an individual who has insured their liability by way of voluntary or obligatory insurance in favour of the injured party (Article 931 and Item 1 of Article 935), when insurance compensation is not sufficient to redress the inflicted injury, shall compensate for the difference between the insurance compensation and the actual injury.

Article 1073. Liability for the Injury Inflicted by Minors at the Age Before 14 Years


1. Parents (adopters) or guardians shall be liable for the injury inflicted by minors who have not attained 14 years of age, unless they prove that the injury has been inflicted not through their fault.
2. If a minor who in need of guardianship was in the respective educational or medical institution, social protection establishment or in any other similar institution, which by dint of law is its guardian (Article 35), this institution shall be obliged to redress the injury inflicted by the minor, unless it proves that this injury has been inflicted not through the institution's fault.
3. If a minor has inflicted injury at a time when he was under the supervision of the educational, medical or other institution which is duty-bound to exercise supervision over the minor or of the person who has exercised supervision on the basis of a contract, this institution or this person shall be liable for the injury, unless they prove that the injury has been inflicted not through their fault during the exercise of supervision.
4. The obligation of parents (adopters), guardians, educational, medical and other institutions in the redress of the injury inflicted by a minor shall not be discontinued with the attainment by the minor of majority or with the receipt by him of property sufficient to redress the injury. If parents (adopters), guardians or other private persons, referred to in Item 3 of this Article, have died or do not have sufficient pecuniary means to redress the injury inflicted on the life or health of the injured person, and the inflictor of injury who has acquired a legal capacity in full possesses such means, the court of law shall have the right to take a decision on the redress of the injury in full or in part at the expense of the inflictor of the injury by taking into account the property status of the injured person and the inflictor of the injury, and also other circumstances.

Article 1074. Liability for the Injury Inflicted by Minors at the Age From 14 to 18 Years


1. Minors at the age from 14 to 18 years shall bear liability for the inflicted injury on general grounds.
2. In case where a minor at the age from 14 to 18 years has no income or other property sufficient to redress injury the latter shall be redressed in full or in the lacking part by his parents (adopters) or the guardian, unless they prove that the injury has been inflicted not through their fault. If a minor at the age from 14 to 18 years who is need of custody was placed in the respective educational or medical establishment, social protection institution or any other similar institution, which by dint of law is his guardian (Article 35), this institution shall be obliged to redress the injury in full or in the lacking part, unless it proves that the injury has been inflicted not through its fault.
3. The obligation of parents (adopters), the guardian and the respective institution to redress the injury inflicted by a minor at the age from 14 to 18 years shall cease upon the attainment of majority by the inflictor of injury in cases where before the attainment of majority he acquired income or other property, which are sufficient to redress the injury, or where he acquired legal capacity before the attainment of majority.

Article 1075. Liability of Parents Deprived in Parental Rights for the Injury Inflicted by Minors


The court of law may impose liability for the injury inflicted by a minor on his parent during three years after the parent was deprived of his parental rights, if the child's behaviour that entailed the infliction of injury had been the result of the improper exercise of parental duties.

Article 1076. Liability for the Injury Inflicted by the Individual Recognized as Legally Unfit


1. The injury inflicted by the individual recognized as legally unfit shall be redressed by his guardian or the organization which is duty-bound to exercise supervision over him, unless they prove that the injury has been inflicted not through their fault.
2. The obligation of the guardian or the organization which is duty-bound to exercise supervision over the redress of the injury inflicted by the individual, recognized as legally unfit, shall not cease in case of the subsequent recognition of him as having a legal capacity.
3. If the guardian has died or has not sufficient pecuniary means to redress the injury inflicted on the life or health of the injured person, and the inflictor of the injury possesses such means, the court of law shall have the right to take a decision on the redress of the injury in full or in part at the expense of the inflictor of the injury by taking into account the property status of the injured party and the inflictor of the injury.

Article 1077. Liability for the Injury Inflicted by the Individual Recognized as Having Limited Legal Capacity


Injury inflicted by the individual with limited legal capacity in consequence of the abuse of alcoholic drinks or narcotics shall be redressed by the inflictor of injury himself.

Article 1078. Liability for the Injury Inflicted by the Individual Who Is Incapable of Understanding the Significance of His Actions


1. An individual with a legal capacity or a minor at the age from 14 to 18 years who has inflicted injury in a state when he could not understand the significance of his actions or guide them shall not be liable for the injury inflicted by him. If injury is inflicted on the life or health of the injured person, the court of law may impose the duty of redressing the injury in full or in part on the inflictor of injury by taking into account the property status of the injured party and the inflictor of injury, and also other circumstances.
2. The inflictor of injury shall not be released from liability, if he has brought himself in a state in which he could not understand the significance of his actions or guide them by the abuse of alcoholic drinks, narcotics or by any other method.
3. If injury is inflicted by the person who could not understand the significance of his actions or guide them in consequence of his psychic disorder, the court of law may impose the duty in redressing injury on the above-bodied spouse, parents, and children of age who have known about the psychic disorder of the inflictor of injury but failed to raise the question about the recognition of this person as legally unfit.

Article 1079. Liability for the Injury Inflicted by the Activity with Increased Hazard for People Around


1. Legal entities and individuals whose activity is associated with increased hazard for people around (the use of transport vehicles, mechanisms, high voltage electric power, atomic power, explosives, potent poisons, etc.; building and other related activity, etc.) shall be obliged to redress the injury inflicted by a source of special danger, unless they prove that injury has been inflicted in consequence of force majeure or the intent of the injured person. The owner of a source of special danger may be released by the court from liability in full or in part also on the grounds, provided for by Items 2 and 3 of Article 1083 of this Code. The obligation of redressing injury shall be imposed on the legal entity or the individual who possess the source of special danger by right of ownership, the right of economic or operative management or on any other lawful ground (by right of lease, by procuration for the right to drive a transport vehicle, by decision of the corresponding body on the transfer of the source of special danger, etc.).
2. The owner of a source of special danger shall not be liable for the injury inflicted by this source, if he proves that the source has retired from his possession as a result of the illegal actions of other persons. In such cases liability for the injury inflicted by the source of special danger shall be borne by the persons who have acquired the source contrary to law. If the owner of the source of special danger is guilty of the withdrawal of this source from his possession contrary to law, liability may be imposed both the owner and on the person who has acquired the source of special danger contrary to law.
3. The owners of sources of special danger shall bear joint liability for the injury inflicted as a result of the interaction of these sources (the collusion of transport vehicles, etc.) to third persons on the grounds, provided for by Item 1 of this Article. Injury inflicted as a result of the interaction of the sources of special danger to their owners shall be redressed on general grounds (Article 1064).

Article 1080. Liability for the Injury Jointly Inflicted by Persons


Persons who jointly inflicted injury shall be jointly liable to the injured party.
In response of the application of the injured person and in his interests the court of law shall have the right to impose liability on the persons who jointly inflicted injury in shares by estimating them with reference to the rules, provided for by Item 2 of Article 1081 of this Code.

Article 1081. The Right of Recourse to the Person Who Has Inflicted Injury


1. A person who has redressed the injury inflicted by another person (the employee who discharges official or other labour duties, the person who drives a transport vehicle, etc.) shall have the right to recourse to this person in the amount of the paid compensation, unless the law establishes a different amount of compensation.
2. The inflictor of injury who has redressed the injury jointly with others shall have the right to demand from each inflictor of injury the share of the compensation paid to the injured party in the amount that corresponds to the degree of guilt of this inflictor of injury. If it is impossible to determine the degree of guilt, the shares shall be recognized as equal.
3. The Russian Federation, the respective subject of the Russian Federation or the municipal formation shall have the right of recourse to the official of the body of inquest, preliminary investigation, procurator's office or the court of law in case of redress of the injury inflicted by them (Item 1 of Article 1070), if his guilt has been established by the court's judgement that has entered in legal force.
4. Persons who have redressed injury on the grounds, referred to in Articles 1073-1076 of this Code shall have no right of recourse to the inflictor of injury.

Article 1082. Methods of Redressing Injury


While satisfying the claim for redressing injury, the court of law, in keeping with the circumstances of the case, shall bind the person responsible for the infliction of injury to redress injury in kind (to present a thing of the same sort and quality, to repair a damaged thing, etc.) or to recompense for the losses caused (Item 2 of Article 15).

Article 1083. The Registration of the Fault of the Injured Party and the Property Status of the Person Who Has Inflicted Injury


1. Injury inflicted due to the intent of the injured party shall not be redressed.
2. If the gross negligence of the injured party himself has facilitated the emergence or increase of injury, the amount of compensation shall be reduced depending on the degree of the guilt of the injured party and the inflictor of injury. In the event of gross negligence on the part of the injured person and in the absence of guilt of the inflictor of injury in cases where his liability commences regardless of his guilt, the amount of compensation shall be reduced or the redress of injury may be rejected, unless the law provides for otherwise. If injury is inflicted on the life or health of the individual, the refusal to redress injury shall not be allowed.
The fault of the injured party shall not be taken into account in case of the reimbursement of additional expenses (Item 1 of Article 1085), of the redress of injury in connection with the death of the breadwinner (Article 1089), and also in case of the compensation for the expenses on the burial (Article 1094).
3. The court of law may reduce the amount of compensation for the injury inflicted by an individual with due account of his property standing, with the exception of cases where injury has been inflicted by deliberate actions.

_ 2. The Redress of the Injury Inflicted on the Life or Health of an Individual


Article 1084. The Redress of the Injury Inflicted on the Life or Health of an Individual During the Discharge of Contractual or Other Obligations


Injury inflicted on the life or health of an individual during the discharge of contractual obligations, and also during the discharge of the military duty, during the service in the militia and during the discharge of other appropriate duties shall be redressed according to the rules, provided for by this Chapter, unless the law or the contract provide for a higher degree of responsibility.

Article 1085. The Extent and Character of the Redress of Injury Inflicted on the Person's Health


1. In case of maiming an individual or of any other injury to his health compensation shall be extended to the earnings (income) which has been lost by the injured person and which he had or could definitely have, and also to the expenses incurred by injury to his health, including the expenses on medical treatment, additional nutrition, the acquisition of medicines, prosthesis, care by other people, the sanatoria and spa treatment, the acquisition of special transport vehicles, retraining, if it is found out that the injured person is in need of aid of these kinds and care and has not the right to receive them free of charge.
2. In estimating the lost earnings (income) the disability pension, awarded to the injured person in connection with mutilation or any other injury to his health, and also other pensions, benefits and other similar payments, awarded both before and after the infliction of injury on his health, shall not be taken into account and shall not involve a reduction of the amount of the compensation for the injury (shall not be counted towards the redress of the injury). The earnings (income), received by the injured party after the impairment of his health, shall not be counted towards the redress of injury.
3. The extent and amount of the redress of injury due to the injured party in keeping with this Article may be increased by the law or the agreement.

Article 1086. The Estimation of the Earnings (Income) Lost as a Result of the Impairment of Health


1. The amount of the earnings (income) lost by the victim and subject to compensation shall be determined in percentage of the average monthly earnings (income) before maiming or any other impairment of health or before the loss of the capacity for work, which correspond to the degree of the loss by the victim of his professional ability to work, and in the absence of professional ability to work - to the degree of the loss of general capacity for work.
2. The lost earnings (income) of the victim shall include all types of taxable payment for his labour under labour and civil-law contracts in the place of his main work and in case of holding more than one office. Settled apart shall be lump-sum payments, in particular compensation for the non-used leave of absence and the retirement benefit in case of dismissal. The paid benefit shall be reckoned over the period of temporal physical disability or of maternity leave. Income from business activity, and also the author's fees shall be included in the lost earnings, with income from business being included on the basis of the data supplied by a tax inspection team. All types of earnings (income) shall be reckoned in the amounts charged before tax.
3. The average monthly earnings (income) of the injured person shall be reckoned by dividing the total sum of his earnings (income) for the 12 months of work that preceded the impairment of his health by 12. If the victim had worked for less than 12 months by the time of the infliction of injury, the average monthly earnings (income) shall be reckoned by dividing the total sum of earnings (income) for the actually worked number of months that preceded the impairment of his health by the number of these months. The months during which he has worked not in full measure shall be replaced at the wish of the victim by the preceding months in which he worked in full measure or shall be excluded from the counting if it is impossible to replace them.
4. In case where the victim of injury account shall be taken at his wish of his earnings before the dismissal or of the usual amount of labour remuneration for the worker of his qualification in the given locality, but not less than the value of the subsistence level of the employable population as a whole in the Russian Federation established in accordance with law.
5. If stable changes improving the property status of the victim (a rise in the wage according to the post held, the transfer to a high-paid job, employment after the graduation from an educational establishment with full-time instruction and in other cases when changes are stable and when it is possible to alter the payment for the victim's labour) took place before the maiming or other impairment of his health, account shall only betaken of the earnings (income) which he received or should have received after the appropriate change in case of estimating his average earnings (income).

Article 1087. The Redress of Injury in Case of Impairing the Health of the Person Who Has Not Attained Majority


1. In case of maiming or any other injury inflicted on the health of a minor who has not attained 14 years of age and who has not got earnings (income), the person responsible for the inflicted injury shall be obliged to reimburse the expenses incurred by the impairment of his health.
2. Upon the attainment by a minor of 14 years of age, and also in the event of the infliction of injury on a minor from 14 to 18 years of age, who has not got earnings (income), the person responsible for the inflicted injury shall be obliged to redress the injury caused by the loss of, or decreased in, capacity for work in addition to the reimbursement of the expenses incurred by the impairment of his health by proceeding from the value of the subsistence level of the employable population as a whole in the Russian Federation established in accordance with law.
3. If by the time of the impairment of his health a minor had earnings, the injury shall be redressed on the basis of their amount, but not less than the value of the subsistence level of the employable population as a whole in the Russian Federation established in accordance with law.
4. After the minor begins his labour activity after the injury was inflicted on his health, he shall have the right to demand an increased amount of compensation for the injury on the basis of his earnings, but not less than the amount of labour remuneration, fixed according to the post he occupies or the earnings of the worker of the same qualification in the place of his work.

Article 1088. The Redress of the Injury Inflicted on the Persons Who Have Suffered Damage as a Result of the Breadwinner's Death


1. In the event of the death of the victim (breadwinner) the right to the redress of injury shall belong to: the non-able-bodied persons who were dependants of the deceased person or who had by time of his death the right to receive maintenance from him;
the infant of the deceased person which was born after his death;
one of the parents, the spouse or any other family member, regardless of his ability to work, who does not work and take the care for his dependent children, grandchildren, brothers and sisters who have not attained 14 years of age or although have attained the said age but are in need of care by other people because of poor health according to the finding of medical bodies;
the persons who were dependants of the deceased person and who have become non-able-bodied during five years after his death.
One of the parents, the spouse or any other family member, who does not work and takes care of the children, grandchildren, brothers and sisters of the deceased person and who has become non-able-bodied during the period of this case, shall retain the right to the referred of injury after the end of the care for these persons.
2. Injury shall be redressed for the following persons: minors - until the attainment of 18 years of age;
students of over 18 years of age - until the graduation of educational establishments with full-time instruction and at least until 23 years of age;
women of over 55 years of age and men of over 60 years of age;
invalids - for the time of disability;
one of the parents, the spouse or another family member who take care of his dependent children, grandchildren, brothers and sisters - until the attainment by them of 14 years of age or the change in the state of their health.

Article 1089. The Amount of the Redress of Injury Sustained in Case of the Breadwinner's Death


1. Injury shall be redressed for the persons who have the right to the redress of injury in connection with the breadwinner's death in the amount of that share of the earnings (income) of the deceased person, determined according to the rules of Article 1086 of this Code, which they received or had the right to receive for his maintenance during his lifetime. In estimating compensation for the injury inflicted on these persons it is necessary to include in the incomes on the deceased person his pension, life maintenance and other such payments on a par with his earnings (income).
2. In estimating the amount of compensation for injury the pensions awarded to the persons in connection with the breadwinner's death, and also other pensions awarded both before and after the breadwinner's death and the earnings (income) and the scholarship received by these persons shall not be counted towards the compensation for their injury.
3. The amount of compensation fixed for each person who is entitled to the redress of injury in connection with the breadwinner's death shall not be subject to further recalculation, except for the cases of: the birth of a baby after the breadwinner's death;
the awarding of compensation payments to the persons who take care of the children, grandchildren, brothers and sisters of the deceased breadwinner or their discontinuance.
The law or the agreement may increase the amount of compensation.

Article 1090. Subsequent Changes in the Amount of Compensation for Injury


1. The victim who has lost his capacity for work partially shall have the right to demand at any time that the person entrusted with the duty of redressing injury that he should increase the amount of compensation accordingly, if the victim's ability to work has decreased afterwards due to the impairment of his health as compared with his ability to work by the time of awarding to him the compensation for the injury.
2. A person who is entrusted with the duty of redressing the injury inflicted on the victim's health shall have the right to demand a corresponding reduction of the amount of compensation, if the victim's ability to work has arisen as compared with that he had by the time of awarding to him the compensation for the injury.
3. The victim shall have the right to demand an increased amount of the redress of injury, if the person charged with the duty of redressing injury has improved his property standing, while the amount of compensation has been reduced in accordance with Item 3 of Article 1083 of this Code.
4. The court of law may on the demand of the person who has inflicted injury reduce the amount of compensation for the injury, if his property standing has deteriorated in connection of disability or the attainment of the pensionable age as compared with his standing at the time of awarding compensation for the injury, except for the cases where injury was inflicted by deliberate actions.

Article 1091. Increase of Amount of Compensation of Harm in Connection with Increased Cost of Living


Amounts to be paid to citizens for compensation of harm caused to the life or health of a victim shall be subject, in the event of an increase in the cost of living, to indexation in the procedure established by law (Article 318).

Article 1092. Payments for the Redress of Injury


1. The redress of the injury caused by the decrease in the capacity for work or by the victim's death shall be effected by monthly payments. In the presence of valid reasons the court of law may, with due account of the possibilities of the inflictor of injury and on the demand of the individual who has the right to the redress of injury, adjudge to him the due payments in the lump, but for not more than three years.
2. Sums of money intended for the reimbursement of additional expenses (Item 1 of Article 1085) may be adjudged for the future within the time-limits, defined on the basis of a medical expert examination, and also in case of necessity for the preliminary payment for the appropriate service and property, including for the acquisition of a pass to a sanatorium or holding home, the payment of fare, the payment for special transport vehicles.

Article 1093. The Redress of Injury in Case of the Termination of a Legal Entity


1. In the event of the reorganization of the legal entity recognized in the statutory manner as responsible for the injury inflicted on human life or health, the obligation to make appropriate payment shall be borne by its legal successor. Claims for the redress of injury shall be made to this successor.
2. In the event of the liquidation of the legal entity, recognized in the statutory manner as responsible for the injury inflicted on human life or health, the appropriate payments shall be capitalized for their payment to the victim according to the rules, established by the law or other legal acts. The law or other legal acts may also provide for other cases in which payments may be capitalized.

Article 1094. The Reimbursement of Expenses on Burial


Persons responsible for the injury caused by the death of the victim shall be obliged to reimburse the necessary expenses on burial to the person who incurred these expenses.
The burial benefit received by private persons who incurred these expenses shall not be counted towards the compensation for the injury.

_ 3. The Redress of the Injury Inflicted by Defects in Goods, Works or Services


Article 1095. The Grounds for the Redress of Injury Inflicted by Defects in Goods, Works and Services


Injury inflicted on the life, health or assets of an individual or damage done to the property of a legal entity in consequence of constructive, recipe or other defects of goods, works or services, and also in consequence of untrustworthy or insufficient information about goods (works, services) shall be subject to redress by the seller or the manufacturer of goods, by the person who has fulfilled the work or rendered the service (executor), regardless of their fault and of the fact whether the victim has been in contractual relations with them or not.
The rules, provided for by this Article, shall be applied only in cases of the acquisition of goods (performance of works or rendering of services) for purposes of consumption and not for use in business activity.

Article 1096. Persons Responsible for the Injury Inflicted Owing to Defects in Goods, Works and Services


1. Injury inflicted owing to defects in goods shall be subject to redress at the option of the victim by the seller or the manufacturer of goods.
2. Injury inflicted owing to defects in works and services shall be subject to redress by the person who has performed the work or rendered the service (executor).
3. Injury Inflicted owing to the non-submission of full and trustworthy information about goods (works, services) shall be subject to redress by the persons, referred to in Items 1 and 2 of this Article.

Article 1097. The Time-limits of the Redress of the Injury Inflicted as a Result of Defects in Goods, Works or Services


1. Injury inflicted owing to defects in goods, works or services shall be subject to redress, if it has appeared during the established period of suitability or service time of goods (works, services), and if the working life has not been established, during 10 years since the production of goods (works, services).
2. Regardless of the time of infliction, harm shall be subject to compensation if: in violation of the requirements of a law, a period of suitability or a service time was not established;
the person to whom the goods were sold, for whom the work was done, or to whom the services were rendered was not warned of the necessary actions upon the expiration of the period of suitability or the service time and the possibility consequences in case of failure to take these actions or who was not provided with the full and veracious information about the goods (or work or service).

Article 1098. The Grounds for the Release from Liability for the Injury Inflicted Owing to Defects in Goods, Works or Services


A seller or a manufactures of goods, an executor of a work or service shall be absolved from liability in case if he proves that injury took place owing to force majeure or the contravention by the consumer of the rules for using goods and by the results of the work, service or of their storage.

_ 4. Compensation for the Moral Damage


Article 1099. General Provisions


1. The grounds and the amount of compensation for the moral damage done to an individual shall be determined by the rules, provided for by this Chapter and Article 151 of this Code.
2. The moral damage inflicted by actions (inaction) that infringe the property rights of an individual shall be subject to compensation in cases, provided for by the law.
3. The moral damage shall be compensated regardless of the property damage subject to compensation.

Article 1100. The Grounds for the Compensation of the Moral Damage


The moral damage shall be compensated regardless of the guilt of the inflictor of damage in cases where:
injury has been inflicted the life or health of an individual by a source of special danger;
damage has been done to an individual as a result of his illegal conviction, the illegal institution of proceedings against him, the illegal application of remand in custody as a measure of suppression or of a written understanding not to leave his place of residence, the illegal imposition of the administrative penalty in the form of arrest or corrective labour;
damage has been inflicted by the spread of information denigrating the honour, dignity and business standing;
in other cases provided for by the law.

Article 1101. The Method and Amount of the Compensation for the Moral Damage


1. The moral damage shall be compensated in monetary form.
2. The amount of the compensation for the moral damage shall be determined by a court of law depending on the nature of physical and moral suffering caused to the victim, and also on the degree of guilt of the inflictor of damage in cases when guilt is a ground for the redress of injury. In estimating the amount of the compensation it is necessary to take into account the requirements of reasonable and justice. The nature of physical and moral suffering shall be assessed by the court with due account of the actual circumstances under which the moral damage was inflicted and of the victim's individual features.

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